What’s in a Name? A Lot!


Flying book - orig“What’s in a name? That which we call a rose
By any other name would smell as sweet.”

Juliet from the play, “Romeo and Juliet.”

What’s in a name? A lot, as it turns out in the recent debate over the Santa Barbara News-Press’ use of the name “illegals” for “undocumented immigrants.” The newspaper’s leaders defended their use of illegals as an accurate depiction of people who are in the country illegally. Immigrant rights groups decried it as a pejorative term and called for a boycott of the paper.

No matter which side of the debate you may favor, it’s clear that words are powerful. A name, a word or a phrase can evoke entirely different emotions and leave entirely different perceptions among different groups of people and among different individuals.

The key to winning communications is to understand the audience you’re trying to reach and how the words you use will be received. What matters is what people hear – rather than what we say. In an successful communications plan, understanding the intended audiences will effectively guide your word choices and messages.

Listing those audiences, and then envisioning an individual in each audience will help you understand how your messages will be received. Creating a portrait of the individual can be done by answering questions like these: Who is that person? What is his/her age, background and educational level? What does s/he like and not like. What does s/he do for a living? Where does s/he live? Does s/he have children? If so, how many and what ages?

Once you have that complete portrait, here are some basic rules for developing the words and messages for each target audience:

  1. Keep it Simple: Use small words and short sentences. That’s how we talk, and that’s how we should communicate in writing, public speaking, broadcasting, etc.
  2. Be credible: Audiences will see through the bogus claims, and they won’t believe anything else you’re saying.
  3. Be consistent: Repetition is important in driving a message home. Finding slightly different ways to convey the same concept will ensure your audiences get the message without being annoyed by the repetition of the same phrases over and over.

While every communications program differs, the psychology department at Yale University has compiled what it says are the 10 most powerful words in the English language for advertisers. Perhaps some of these will help you:

  1. You: Listed as the No. 1 most powerful word in every study Yale reviewed. It’s a favorite for ad copywriters.
  2. Results: It rationalizes an action, a purchase or a donation.
  3. Health: Especially powerful when it applies to a product.
  4. Guarantee: Presents a sense of safety.
  5. Discover: Provides a sense of adventure.
  6. Love: Who doesn’t value this?
  7. Proven: Helps remove the fear of trying something new.
  8. Safety: Especially useful with products and new experiences.
  9. Save: Even more meaningful since the recession spawned more bargain hunters.
  10. New: Humans seek novelty.

What other powerful words do you use?

He Said What? Five Basic Rules for Crisis Communications


Loma Prieta earthquakeTwenty-five years ago, as viewers tuned in to watch Game Three of the 1989 World Series in San Francisco’s Candlestick Park, the Loma Prieta earthquake shook the stadium’s foundations and caused widespread damage in San Francisco, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties. The 6.9 magnitude temblor knocked down a section of the Bay Bridge, collapsed a mile of the elevated Interstate 880 in Oakland, toppled buildings and triggered a spectacular fire in San Francisco’s Marina District.

California’s governor at the time, George Deukmejian, was out of the country, leaving the lieutenant governor, the late Leo McCarthy, in charge. Shortly after the 5:04 p.m. earthquake on Oct. 17, 1989, McCarthy went on national television to announce 271 were dead. As it turned out, the death toll was much lower: 63 died as a direct result of the quake.

News outlets around the world repeated McCarthy’s death toll, magnifying the mistake and exacerbating the sense that state officials – who came under fire for insufficiently strengthening the freeway – couldn’t be trusted.

Recalling this mistake on the 25th anniversary of one of the most destructive quakes in modern U.S. history provides an opportunity to remember the following Five Basic Rules for Crisis Communications:

1. Respond quickly and accurately

Responding as soon as possible is essential in an emergency. But initial reports are often wrong and providing accurate information is essential. Kevin Brett, the governor’s press secretary 25 years ago, recalled the incorrect information he received that day, including an erroneous report that the Bay Bridge was “in the water.”

McCarthy’s incorrect death toll was reportedly based on an estimate of the normal number of commuters on the collapsed freeway at rush hour. But the World Series had prompted many people to leave work early to attend the game or watch it on TV, potentially saving the lives of hundreds of commuters who might have otherwise been on the freeway’s lower deck when it collapsed.

Sticking to what is known guards against mistakes – even if all that can be reported is the nature of the emergency and the fact that emergency workers are on the scene.

  1. Have clear messages

Having a designated spokesperson or persons who are all on the same page will avoid additional confusion. While each person may address a different aspect of the emergency, coordinating with one another to avoid contradictions will help assure the public, customers, employees and other stakeholders that the crisis is being effectively managed.

Take a tip from public agencies: The State of California and other public agencies often set up a command center where different agencies coordinate responses and communications to ensure the public gets accurate and coherent information.

  1. Correct misinformation ASAP

News and social media tend to feed on one another, spreading misinformation like a virus. Tracking media coverage and social media will detect misinformation quickly and provide an opportunity to correct it ASAP.

  1. Demonstrate compassion appropriately

Spokespersons can display too much emotion, as was demonstrated by an exhausted and overwrought spokeswoman who sobbed in front of the TV cameras after a Los Angeles train crash. Or they can show too little, as was the case when former President George W. Bush’s initial response to Hurricane Katrina was to survey the damage from a comfortable seat aboard Air Force One. Remaining calm and expressing an appropriate level of sympathy and compassion, if warranted by the situation, will help reassure the public.

  1. Have a written plan

Most importantly, having a plan for handling crises and identifying what constitutes a crisis will avoid mistakes, protect reputations and reassure the public, customers, employees, stockholders and other stakeholders. Including an organizational and duty chart, a list of appropriate responses for each level of crisis, all relevant contact information, standby statements and releases, a centralized place, plans for meeting there and clear-cut guidelines on who will serve as spokesperson(s) will create a coordinated response in times of crises.

When the ground shakes, products fail and controversies erupt, the very future of an organization can depend on its response. Planning ahead for such times, proactively engaging the target audiences, effectively communicating and tactfully delivering accurate information on a timely basis will be essential to successfully navigating the crisis.